An Introduction to CNC Turning(melting point of metals Kitty)
- source:GAENOR CNC Machining
In this article, we’ll cover the basics of CNC turning, including:
- How CNC turning works
- The components of a CNC lathe
- Turning methods like facing, boring, grooving, threading, and parting
- Benefits of CNC turning vs manual turning
- Common applications of CNC turning
- How to get started with CNC turning
Understanding CNC Turning
CNC turning utilizes programmable automation to control the movement of the cutting tool and the rotation of the cylindrical workpiece. By following computerized instructions, or G-code, the lathe can consistently machine complex geometries with a higher degree of accuracy and efficiency compared to manual operation.
During the turning process, the cutting tool follows precise paths in two axes:
- X axis (radial axis): Moves the tool horizontally across the face of the part
- Z axis (longitudinal axis): Moves the tool vertically in alignment with the axis of the part
As the tool feeds towards the rotating workpiece, material is shaved away to create the desired diameters, shapes, and features. Feed rates and cutting speeds can be optimized for the material being cut.
Key Components of a CNC Lathe
A CNC lathe contains the same basic components as a manual lathe, but with the added CNC capabilities for automation. Key components include:
- Headstock: The headstock holds the chuck or collet that grips the workpiece and provides the rotational drive. Gearing allows different spindle speeds.
- Tailstock: The tailstock holds tooling for the non-rotating end of the workpiece, such as a live center. It can slide to accommodate different workpiece lengths.
- Tool turret: An indexing tool turret allows automated access to multiple cutting tools, reducing changeover time.
- Toolposts: Stationary toolposts hold a single tool for basic operations.
- CNC controller: Controls the motion of the machine axes according to the G-code program.
- Bed: Provides a foundation for the headstock, tailstock, and carriage components.
- Carriage: The carriage houses the toolpost and cross slide, which positions the tool.
By moving the cutter at different angles, depths, and directions, CNC turning can perform various machining operations including:
Facing: Machining the end of a cylindrical part flat and perpendicular to the axis. This creates a reference surface.
OD (Outside Diameter) Turning: Machining the exterior of a cylindrical surface to the required diameters and forms.
Boring: Enlarging the interior diameter of a hole. The tool is fed radially into the rotating part.
Grooving: Cutting a slot in the workpiece. Performed on the OD, ID, or face.
Parting/Cutoff: Cutting through the entire diameter to sever a completed part from the raw stock.
Threading: Using the coordinated motion of the lathe to cut screw threads. Can cut external or internal threads.
With the right programming, a CNC lathe can transition between operations to create complex turned parts with minimal human intervention.
The Benefits of CNC Turning
CNC turning offers notable advantages over manual turning on a traditional engine lathe:
- Increased consistency and precision: The computer eliminates human error and ensures every part meets specifications.
- Faster cycle times: CNC automation allows faster machining, increasing throughput.
- Reduced labor costs: Less operator time is needed since multiple operations are programmed.
- Complex geometries: CNC machines can produce parts manual turning cannot, with contours, threads, tapers, grooves, etc.
- Safer operation: The operator simply supervises the machining process from a control panel.
- Easier changeovers: Different part programs can be selected as needed, with tooling setups handled automatically.
- Less training required: Programming skills can be taught more quickly than manual machining skills.
While the initial investment is higher, CNC turning pays for itself through greater efficiency and consistency in production.
Applications of CNC Turning
Thanks to its precision, consistency, and flexibility, CNC turning is used across many industries to produce cylindrical parts including:
- Automotive: Engine valves, pistons, axles, bearings, couplings, pulleys, etc.
- Aerospace: Bushings, spacers, hydraulics cylinders, fasteners, engine mounts, landing gear, turbines.
- Medical: Implants, surgical instruments, orthopedic devices, dental parts, prosthetics.
- Firearms: Barrels, receivers, cylinders, magazines, bolts, frames.
- Robotics: Discs, rollers, shafts, arms, rotors, joints, housings.
- Fluid power: Fittings, valves, actuators, adapters, pump components, compressors.
From tiny medical pins just a few millimeters in size to large diameter pipes and tubing, CNC lathes can precisely turn out parts from a variety of materials including metals, plastics, and composites.
Getting Started with CNC Turning
For companies looking to adopt CNC turning, here are some recommendations:
- Assess part candidates. Look for parts produced in medium to high quantities that require round profiles, grooves, threads, etc.
- Calculate potential savings. Consider projected costs of fixtures, tooling, programming, maintenance, and operation.
- Choose lathe size and features. Determine the swing diameter, distance between centers, and other requirements.
- Select tooling packages. Indexing turrets, C-axis milling, live tools, and a parts catcher help maximize capability.
- Plan workflows. Optimize part flow from raw material to finished product.
- Develop programs. Use CAM software to translate part geometry into machining instructions.
- Train staff. Educate machine operators, programmers, maintenance techs, and management.
- Implement safety procedures. Establish protocols for safe CNC operation and maintenance.
With preparation and training, manufacturers can utilize CNC turning to boost productivity, quality, and profitability. This versatile machining process is a valuable technological advancement for producing precision turned components. CNC Milling CNC Machining